University of Florida

Base Layers and Information


Data format: SDE Feature Class

File or table name: BASE.SRWMD_LANDUSE_1988

Coordinate system: Albers Conical Equal Area

Theme keywords: Land Cover, Land Use

Abstract: Coverage of Landuse data from the Suwannee River Water Management District

FGDC and ESRI Metadata:

Metadata elements shown with blue text are defined in the Federal Geographic Data Committee's (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM). Elements shown with green text are defined in the ESRI Profile of the CSDGM. Elements shown with a green asterisk (*) will be automatically updated by ArcCatalog. ArcCatalog adds hints indicating which FGDC elements are mandatory; these are shown with gray text.

Identification Information:
Citation information:
Originators: SRWMD
*File or table name: BASE.SRWMD_LANDUSE_1988
Publication date: 1990s
*Geospatial data presentation form: vector digital data
*Online linkage: Server=arcsde; Service=sde1; User=base; Version=SDE.DEFAULT
Coverage of Landuse data from the Suwannee River Water Management District
*Language of dataset: en
Time period of content:
Time period information:
Single date/time:
Calendar date: 1990s
Currentness reference:
publication date
Progress: Complete
Maintenance and update frequency: None planned
Spatial domain:
Bounding coordinates:
*West bounding coordinate: -84.076798
*East bounding coordinate: -82.026495
*North bounding coordinate: 30.672222
*South bounding coordinate: 28.991818
Local bounding coordinates:
*Left bounding coordinate: 392646.844000
*Right bounding coordinate: 588973.125000
*Top bounding coordinate: 740487.312500
*Bottom bounding coordinate: 555430.625000
Theme keywords: Land Cover, Land Use
Theme keyword thesaurus: none
Place keywords: Florida, Suwannee River Water Management District
Access constraints: none
Browse graphic:
Browse graphic file name: \\bis-4cgxh11\metadata\thumbnails\base.srwmd_landuse_1988.gif
Browse graphic file type: GIF
*Native dataset format: SDE Feature Class
*Native data set environment:
Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.0 (Build 2195) Service Pack 2; ESRI ArcCatalog
Cross reference:
Citation information:

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Data Quality Information:
Source information:
Source citation:
Citation information:
Source scale denominator: 24,000
Process step:
Process description:
This data was received as a single sheet in ARC/INFO export file format.  Using
ARC/INFO 7.2.1, the file was IMPORTed, PROJECTed, and converted to a shapefile.

Using SQL update, a column was added to the land use datasets which allows
users to easily classify the data according to FLUCCS Level 1.  The field LEVEL1
was added in SDE and populated with the following code using SQL . . .
alter table xxwmd_landuse_19nn add (level1 number(4));
update xxwmd_landuse_19nn set level1 = ((substr(lu_code,1,1))*1000);

February 2000
Using SQL update, numeric codes were synthesized for improving thematic
classification at all levels.  All 1:24k land use layers now have at least four
standard fields in common: LEVEL1, LEVEL2, LEVEL3, and ATTRIBUTE.  LU_CODE was
replaced by LEVEL3 and codes for the other levels were extracted.  ATTRIBUTE
was added and contains a textual description of the numeric FLUCCS code.  It 
replaces the field FEATURE from the original dataset.
Process software and version: SDE 3.0.2
Process date: August 1999
Process contact:
Contact information:
Contact organization primary:
Contact person:
Contact organization: SRWMD
Contact voice telephone:

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Spatial Data Organization Information:
*Direct spatial Rreference method: Vector
Point and vector object information:
SDTS terms description:
*SDTS point and vector object type: G-polygon
*Point and vector object count: 147795
ESRI terms description:
*ESRI feature type: Simple
*ESRI feature geometry: Polygon
*ESRI topology: FALSE
*ESRI feature count: 147795
*Spatial index: TRUE
*Linear referencing: FALSE

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Spatial Reference Information:
Horizontal coordinate system definition:
Coordinate system name:
*Projected coordinate system name: Custom
*Geographic coordinate system name: GCS_North_American_1983_HARN
Map projection:
*Map projection name: Albers Conical Equal Area
Albers conical equal area:
*Standard parallel: 24.000000
*Standard parallel: 31.500000
*Longitude of central meridian: -84.000000
*Latitude of projection origin: 24.000000
*False easting: 400000.000000
*False northing: 0.000000
Planar coordinate information:
*Planar coordinate encoding method: coordinate pair
Coordinate representation:
*Abscissa resolution: 0.000500
*Ordinate resolution: 0.000500
*Planar distance units: meters
Geodetic model:
*Horizontal datum name: North American Datum of 1983
*Ellipsoid name: Geodetic Reference System 80
*Semi-major axis: 6378137.000000
*Denominator of flattening ratio: 298.257222
Vertical coordinate system definition:
Altitude system definition:
*Altitude resolution: 1.000000
*Altitude encoding method: Explicit elevation coordinate included with horizontal coordinates

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Entity and Attribute Information:
Detailed description:
Entity type:
*Entity type label: BASE.SRWMD_LANDUSE_1988
*Entity type type: Feature Class
*Entity type count: 147795
Attribute label: AREA
*Attribute alias: BASE.SRWMD_LANDUSE_1988.AREA
*Attribute type: Double
*Attribute width: 8
*Attribute precision: 15
*Attribute scale: 3
*Attribute label: PERIMETER
*Attribute alias: PERIMETER
*Attribute type: Double
*Attribute width: 8
*Attribute precision: 15
*Attribute scale: 3
*Attribute label: LEVEL1
*Attribute alias: LEVEL1
*Attribute type: SmallInteger
*Attribute width: 2
*Attribute precision: 4
*Attribute scale: 0
*Attribute label: LEVEL2
*Attribute alias: LEVEL2
*Attribute type:SmallInteger
*Attribute width: 2
*Attribute precision: 4
*Attribute scale: 0
*Attribute label: LEVEL3
*Attribute alias: LEVEL3
*Attribute type: SmallInteger
*Attribute width: 2
*Attribute precision: 4
*Attribute scale: 0
*Attribute label: ATTRIBUTE
*Attribute alias: ATTRIBUTE
*Attribute type: String
*Attribute width: 40
*Attribute precision: 0
*Attribute scale: 0
*Attribute label: SHAPE
*Attribute alias: SHAPE
*Attribute definition:
Feature geometry.
*Attribute definition source:
*Attribute type: Geometry
*Attribute width: 4
*Attribute precision: 0
*Attribute scale: 0
Attribute domain values:
*Unrepresentable domain:
Coordinates defining the features.
*Attribute label: OBJECTID
*Attribute alias: OBJECTID
*Attribute type: OID
*Attribute width: 4
*Attribute precision: 10
*Attribute scale: 0
*Attribute label: SHAPE.AREA
*Attribute alias: SHAPE.AREA
*Attribute type: Double
*Attribute width: 0
*Attribute precision: 0
*Attribute scale: 0
*Attribute label: SHAPE.LEN
*Attribute alias: SHAPE.LEN
*Attribute type: Double
*Attribute width: 0
*Attribute precision: 0
*Attribute scale: 0
Overview description:
Entity and attribute overview:
        2000     AGRICULTURE
        3000     RANGELAND
        4000     UPLAND FORESTS
        5000     WATER
        6000     WETLANDS
        7000     BARREN LAND

In 1989, the Suwannee River Water Management District (District) contracted 
with ERDAS, Inc. to use satellite imagery to determine the present landcover 
for the entire District.  It should be clearly understood that the product was 
land cover and not land use.  Land uses that were identified were typically 
associated with urban areas.  They proceeded by initially purchasing three 
scenes of Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery (TM) from EOSAT for North Florida.  
The dates of three scenes are listed below:
	Scene				Date
	17-39				April 14, 1988
	17-40				April 19, 1988
	18-39				April 5, 1988
These scenes were put into a format with the desired coordinate system (Florida 
State Plane, North Zone 3576) by STX.  Initially, ERDAS performed the 
classification on pilot areas around Lake City and North Gilchrist County, 
Florida.  During this time, we were able to refine the classification and 
determine the categories to be defined.  Following completion of the pilot 
areas, ERDAS proceeded to classify the rest of the District.
Since digital classification of satellite data is based on spectral 
characteristics, a landcover map is the result instead of land use, which is 
human interpretation of the landcover.  In the landcover scheme, a grassy area 
is just that, whereas in a land use perspective, that area may be a residential 
lawn, a pasture, a fallow field, or even a lake bed (during a drought).  
Dominant reflections generally indicate predominant land cover, not dominant 
land use.  Keeping this distinction in mind will lead to a clearer 
understanding of the database and landcover maps.
The District selected the Florida Land Use, Cover and Forms Classification 
System (FLUCCS), developed by the Florida Department of Transportation, 
Topographic Bureau, Thematic Mapping Section, for defining the categories.  
The majority of the descriptions are taken directly from the FLUCCS document, 
dated September 1985, and have been modified where appropriate or needed to 
accurately characterize a particular land cover type.


This land use, vegetation cover, and land form classification system in 
arranged in hierarchical levels with each level containing land information of 
increasing specificity.  The various categories and subcategories listed and 
defined herein reflect the types of data and information which can be extracted 
from aerial photography of various type (panchromatic, natural color, or 
false-color infrared) and scales (large, medium, and small) and from the 
current generation of airborne and satellite multispectral imaging systems.  
Color, shade, shape, size, texture, shadows, context, and, in the case of 
non-photographic imagery, multispectral and multitemporal characteristics are 
some of the features used to implement land use/cover classification.
In this project, a combination of data sources were used to delineate and 
classify land cover.  The principal data source was TM.  Additional data 
sources were:  SPOT Panchromatic and Multispectral Imagery, United States (US) 
Department of Agriculture National High Altitude Photography--1983-1984 (NHAP), 
US Geological Survey 7.5 minute Quadrangle Maps, US Fish and Wildlife Service 
National Wetlands Inventory Maps, and site visits.  This enabled ERDAS to 
classify categories for all the Levels that are described below.

	This level of classification is very general in nature.  It can be 
	obtained from remote sensing satellite imagery with supplemental 
	information.  Level I would normally be used for very large areas, 
	statewide or larger, mapped typically at a scale of 1:1,000,000 or 
	1:500,000.  At these scales, one inch equals sixteen miles (one 
	centimeter per ten kilometers) and one inch equals eight miles (one 
	centimeter per five kilometers), respectively.

	This level of classification is more specific than level I.  Data for 
	Level II classification are normally obtained from high altitude 
	imagery (40,000 to 60,000 feet) supplemented by satellite imagery and 
	other materials, such as topographic maps.  Mapping typically might be 
	at a scale of 1:100,000 or one inch equals 8,333 feet ( one centimeter 
	per one kilometer).

	This level of classification is usually delineated from medium altitude 
	photography flown between 10,000 and 40,000 feet.  The mapping scale 
	typically is 1:24,000 or one inch equals 2,000 feet (one centimeter per 
	0.24 kilometer).

	This (The most specific) level of classification is delineated from 
	low altitude photography flown below 10,000 feet.  In comparison with 
	the above mentioned levels, Level IV typically might be mapped at a 
	scale of 1:6,000 or one inch equals 500 feet (one centimeter per 0.06 
	It is important for the reader to realize that as the scale of the 
	imagery increases, not only will the image analyst be able to make more 
	specific assignments of ground features to particular land use/cover 
	classes, but the increased scale will allow for the break out of 
	smaller features.  At Levels III and IV, relatively small ground areas 
	form a significant portion of an image.  For certain classes of ground 
	cover, this may present difficulties.  For example, on 1Ó:500Õ images 
	groups of three or four oak trees are easily delineated.  While in and 
	of themselves they do not form a forest, that particular polygon will 
	still be assigned to the Upland Forest class.  An even more extreme 
	case is the delineation of just a few hundred square feet of herbaceous 
	ground cover.  While such an area clearly cannot support cattle, it is 
	still assigned to the Rangeland classification.  While this shortcoming 
	of the classification system does not cause any real conceptual 
	problems, we feel that the reader should be advised of these facts.

	The first four classes, being of a land use nature, required .special 
	attention.  Residential and commercial areas were first extracted from 
	the imagery and underwent a specialized classification (Kauth-Thomas 
	transformation and band ratioing).  Then these areas were edited using 
	NHAP.  Lake City was classified and edited using SPOT Panchromatic and 
	Multispectral Imagery (May 2, 1988).  Industrial and extractive sites 
	were digitized directly from the TM imagery, using previous knowledge 
	of the sites and NHAP as a guide.  Transportation corridors (4-lane or 
	greater roads) were digitized interactively on the Landsat imagery on 
	the color monitor.  The remainder of the landcover classes were 
	digitally classified from the TM and edited using NHAP.  The NHAP 
	averaged five years older than the TM, 30 edits based on photo 
	interpretation had to be done with this in mind.


	Urban and built-up land consists of areas of intensive use with much of 
	the land occupied by man-made structures.  Included in this category 
	are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways and such 
	areas as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and 
	commercial complexes and institutions.  Typically, only areas around 
	cities are included in this classification.As urban expansion 
	progresses, small blocks of land of less intensive or nonconforming 
	use may become isolated in the midst of built up regions.  Such 
	occurrences will generally be incorporated into this land use category. 
	However, agricultural, forest, or water areas fringing upon urban and 
	built-up areas will not be included in the Urban and Built-Up class 
	except where they are an integral component of low-density urban 
	development.The Urban and Built-Up category takes precedence over 
	other categories in areas around cities.  For example, residential 
	areas that have sufficient tree canopy cover to satisfy the Upland 
	Forest (420) criteria will still be classified as Residential in the 
	Urban or Built-Up category.  In most cases in rural areas, the 
	residential and urban areas were classified by the land cover 

1l0	Residential
	The three residential classes (110-130) listed below were combined into 
	one category (110), due to the inability to delineate them using TM and 
	NHAP.  Areas classified residential were derived from a combination of 
	imagery classification, editing of classified raster data, and 
	digitizing appropriate areas based on the NHAP into the raster image. 
	Typically, rural residential areas were classified according to 
	landcover and not the use.Residential land uses range from high-
	density urban housing developments to low-density rural areas 
	characterized by a relatively small number of homes per acre.  The 
	variation extends from the multi-family apartment complexes generally 
	located in larger urban centers to single-family housing sometimes 
	having lot sizes of more than one acre.Areas of low intensity 
	residential land use (generally less than one dwelling unit per five 
	acres), such as farmsteads, will be incorporated in other categories to 
	which they related.  Rural residential and recreational type 
	subdivision will be included in the appropriate land cover category.In 
	most instances, the boundary will be clear when new housing 
	developments abut clearly defined agricultural area.  Conversely, the 
	residential boundary may be vague and difficult to discern when 
	residential developments is sporadic and occurs in smaller isolated 
	units developed over an extended period of time in areas with mixed or 
	less intensive land uses.  In these cases it was typically classified 
	according to landcover.In the FLUCCS Manual, the residential 
	categories are broken down as follows:	
110	Residential, Low Density <Less than two dwelling units per acre>
120	Residential, Medium Density <Two-five dwelling units per acre>
130	Residential, High Density

140	Commercial and Services
	Commercial areas are predominantly associated with the distribution of 
	products and services.  This category is composed of a large number of 
	individual types of commercial land uses which often occur in complex 
	mixtures.The Commercial and Services category includes all secondary 
	structures associated with an enterprise in addition to the main 
	building and integral areas assigned to support the base unit.  
	Included are sheds, warehouses, office buildings, driveways, parking 
	lots, and landscaped areas.Other types of commercial areas include 
	shopping centers and commercial strip developments.  These areas have 
	distinctive patterns which are readily identifiable on aerial 
	photographs.  Frequently, individual houses and other classes of urban 
	land use may be found within commercial areas.It should be noted that 
	commercial areas away from cities were typically classified according 
	to the landcover and vegetation around the site.

150	Industrial
	Only a few industrial areas were identified as part of this project.  
	Each of theses were digitized into the system based on the NHAP. The 
	Industrial category embraces those land uses where manufacturing, 
	assembly, or processing of materials and products are accomplished. 
	Industrial areas include a wide array of industry types ranging from 
	light manufacturing and industrial parks to heavy manufacturing plants.
	Also included are those facilities for administration and research, 
	assembly, storage and warehousing, shipping, and associated parking 
	lots and grounds.Typical examples of industrial types found in 
	Florida are pulp and lumber mills, oil refineries with tank farms, 
	chemical plants, and brickmaking plants.  Stockpiles of raw materials,
	large power sources, and solid waste product disposal areas are 
	visible industrial features and are easily identified on conventional 
	aerial photography.The Florida Power Corporation electric generating 
	station at Ellaville and the Procter and Gamble cellulose mill near 
	Perry are examples of the sites identified in this land use class.

160	Extractive
	Extractive areas encompass both surface and subsurface mining 
	operations.  Included are sand, gravel and clay pits, phosphate mines, 
	limestone quarries, plus oil and gas wells.  Industrial complexes where
	the extracted material is refined, packaged, or further processed are 
	also included in this category   The recognizable impacts of these 
	activities on the landscape will vary from the unmistakable giant pit 
	mines covering vast acreages to oil wells which cover only a few 
	square feet.  Obviously, consistent identification of all these 
	diverse extractive uses with their varied degrees of photographic 
	expression can be difficult from remote sending data alone.Flooded 
	pits and quarries, which may be part of a mining operation, were 
	typically not included in this category.  The presence of water bodies 
	does not necessarily imply inactive or unused extractive areas; ponds 
	or lakes are often an integral part of an extractive operation.
	Abandoned or inactive mining operations are a part of the extractive 
	category and were mapped in several cases.  Areas of tailings and 
	abandoned pits and quarries may remain recognizable for a long time. 
	These areas may be barren for decades after deposition.  Examples of 
	areas that were input into the raster files were the Occidental 
	Chemical Agricultural Products phosphate mines in Hamilton County, 
	the E. I. Dupont Titanium mines in Bradford and Clay counties, and 
	several large rock and sand mines in the District.  The boundaries of 
	the mines were digitized from NHAP.The following classification as 
	included in the urban (140) or the residential (110) groups, depending 
	on their physical location.

170	Institutional
	Educational, religious, health, and military facilities are typical 
	components of this category.

180	Recreational
	Recreational areas are those areas whose physical structure indicates 
	that active user-oriented recreation is or could be occurring within 
	the given physical area.

190	Open Land
	This category includes undeveloped land within urban areas and 
	inactive land with street patterns but without structures.


	In the broadest sense, agricultural land may be defined as those lands 
	which are cultivated to produce food crops and/or livestock.  The sub-
	categories of Agriculture are as follows:  Cropland, Pastureland, 
	Orchards, Groves (except Citrus), Vineyards, Nurseries, Ornamental 
	Horticulture Areas, Citrus Groves, Confined Feeding Operations, 
	Specialty Farms, and Other Agriculture.  Using the TM, ERDAS was only 
	able to consistently make classifications based on the category 210. 
	This was due to difficulties in the classifying of remote sensing data 
	and that agriculture practices taking place in the spring such as 
	plowing and planting were at various stages therefore giving off 
	different spectral values when the imagery was taken.  Also, the dates 
	of the TM were selected with wetland classification foremost in mind, 
	and are not conducive to classification of agriculture.

210	Cropland and Pastureland
	This includes agricultural lands which are managed for the production 
	of row or field crops and improved, unimproved, and woodland pastures. 
	Other agricultural land uses may have been included in this category 
	due to similar spectral values.
	Cropland and Pastureland include:
	1.  Cropland harvested or land from which crops are
 		harvested other than tree and bush crops and
		horticultural crops.
	2.  Lands on which crops and pasture grasses are grown
		in rotation with one another.
	3.  Pastureland used more or less permanently for
		livestock grazing.
	Numerous variables must be recognized in identifying crop and pasture 
	uses of land in different parts of Florida.  Field size and shape are 
	highly variable depending upon topographic conditions as well as soil 
	types, size of farms, kind of crops and pastures, capital investments, 
	labor availability, and other conditions.In Florida, supplemental 
	irrigation of cropland and pastureland by use of overhead rotary 
	sprinklers can be detected from photography where distinctive 
	circular patterns are created.  Drainage or water control on land used 
	for cropland and pastureland sometimes creates a recognizable pattern 
	that may be helpful in identifying this type of land use from 
	photography.The duration of crop growth in the field may be rather 
	limited.  A false impression of non-agricultural use in a field may 
	result if conditions of temporary inactivity are not recognized.  
	However, this can be substantiated by field checking areas which are 
	in question.Pastures may be drained and/or irrigated lands.  Where 
	the management objective is to establish or maintain stands of 
	grasses such as bahia, pangola, or bermuda grass, either alone or in 
	mixtures with white clover or other legumes, land is categorized as 
	pastureland regardless of treatments.  Much of the "permanent" 
	pastures in the District occur on land which usually is not tilled or 
	used as cropland.  Topographically rough land, streams, floodplains, 
	wooded areas, and wetlands often may be used for pasture more or less 
	permanently.It should also be noted that cropland and grasses may 
	include grass areas along roads or in recently clear-cut forests.The 
	following classifications were not used but are referenced in the 
	FLUCCS manual.  They usually were grouped into the category 210.
211	Improved Pastures
212	Unimproved Pastures
213	Woodland Pastures
214	Row Crops
215	Field Crops
	The agriculture categories listed below were not delineated separately,
	but were typically classified with areas having a similar spectral 
	value.  In some cases, they were identified as category 210.
220	Tree Crops
230	Feeding Operations
240	Nurseries and Vineyards
250	Specialty Farms
260	Other Open Lands <Rural>


	Historically, rangeland has been defined as land where the typical or 
	natural vegetation is predominantly grasses, grasslike plants, forbs, 
	or shrubs and is capable of being grazed.  Management practices may 
	include brush control, regulation of grazing intensity ,and season of 
	use. If revegetated to improve the forage cover, it is managed like 
	native vegetation.  Generally, this land is not fertilized, cultivated,
	or irrigated.The definition of Rangeland used in the CONSERVATION 
	NEEDS INVENTORY by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Interior is
	used in this classification scheme and describes the natural potential
	(climax) plant cover as being composed of principally native grasses, 
	forbs, and shrubs valuable for forage.  This category includes 
	Grassland, Shrub and Brushland and Mixed Rangeland.  In some cases, it 
	is necessary to deviate from this definition of rangeland.  When 
	large-scale imagery is employed in a land use/cover inventory, small 
	areas of herbaceous or shrubland become evident and significant. 
	Although these small areas cannot support cattle, they are included in 
	this category.  However, it is worth noting that such areas may be 
	used extensively as wildlife forage areas.

310	Herbaceous
	Herbaceous areas were not classified but were typically included in 
	category 320.  This category includes prairie grasses which occur on 
	the upland margins of the wetland zone and may be periodically 
	inundated by water.  Generally, it is the marginal area between marsh 
	and upland forested areas.  These grasslands are generally treeless 
	but in wet areas would have many types of soils resulting in a variety 
	of vegetation types dominated by grasses, sedges, rushes and other 
	herbs while dryer grasses areas would by dominated by wire grasses 
	with some saw palmetto present.

320	Shrub and Brushland
	This category includes saw palmettos, gallberry, wax myrtle, coastal 
	scrub, and other shrubs and brush.  Generally, saw palmetto is the 
	most prevalent plant cover intermixed with a wide variety of other 
	woody shrubs as well as various types of short herbs and grasses.  
	Pine plantations with young pine trees where shrub and brushland are 
	still the dominant cover may be classified as 320.  Also included in 
	this cove class may be some types of scrub/shrub wetlands, abandoned 
	or older agriculture fields, and parts of road right of ways.  
	Identification of some scrub/shrub wetlands as 320 (rather than 646) 
	seems to depend on site hydrology and its influence on plant species 
	composition, vegetation condition, and the corresponding spectral 
	reflectance characteristics. Herbaceous areas (310) and mixed 
	rangeland (330) are included in shrub and brushland.
322	Coastal Scrub
	This scrub category represents a conglomeration of species found in 
	the coastal zone.  A few of the more common components are saw 
	palmetto, sand live oak, myrtle oak, sand pine, yaupon, rosemary, wax 
	myrtle, salt bush, railroad vine, bay bean, sea grape, spanish bayonet,
	and prickly pear.  Coastal scrub vegetation could include pioneer herbs 
	and shrubs composed of such typical plants as sea purslane and sea 
	oats without any one of these types being dominant.  This cover type 
	is generally found in dune and white sand hill areas on the coast.  
	This community type is largely found northeast of Cedar Key in 
	coastal Levy County, but small patches of this cover type may also be 
	found in coastal Dixie and Taylor counties as well.
330	Mixed Rangeland
	This category was included in the Shrub and Brushland category 320. 
	When more than one-third intermixture of either grassland or shrub 
	brushland range species occurs, the specific classification is changed 
	to Mixed Rangeland.  Where the intermixture is less than one-third, it 
	is classified as the dominant type of Rangeland, whether grassland or 
	Shrub and Brushland categories.


	This category of land cover is reserved for those upland areas which 
	support a tree canopy closure of ten percent or more.  The Upland 
	Forests include both the xeric (dry site) and mesic (moderately moist 
	site) forest communities.  Wetland, or hydric, forest communities 
	fall under the forested wetland category.  Also included in the Upland 
	Forest category are areas in which timber harvesting has occurred but 
	which exhibit no evidence of being developed for other intended uses 
	(clear-cuts in an are in which rotation forest management is practiced 
	is a prime example of such a case).FloridaÕs forests serve as a vital 
	resource from not only a commercial view point, but also from an 
	aesthetic and recreational view point.  In Florida, slightly less than 
	50 percent of the land base (17 million acres) is identified by the 
	United States Forest Service as forest land.  Approximately 40 percent 
	is commercial timber land.  A very significant portion of this land is 
	allocated to pine plantation monoculture.  Based on the 1980 Forest 
	Service inventory, there are approximately six and one-half million 
	acres of pure natural and planted longleaf and slash pine stands in 
	Florida.  There are also many stands of pure hardwood species groups 
	occurring in Florida.  However, the majority of forest lands occur as 
	mixed communities of tree species and species groups.  For purposes of 
	classification, a given forest stand is assigned to a particular 
	species or species group only if 66 percent or more of the total 
	canopy can be assigned as such.  Otherwise, the mixed categories (434 
	and 438) are used.  Note here that the classification of forests is 
	based upon the species composition of the tree canopy using homogeneous 
	sites to classify areas with similar reflectance.

410	Upland Coniferous Forest
	These categories were usually included in the Pine Plantation (441) 
	category due to difficulties in classification with the Landsat data.  
	Any natural upland forest stand whose canopy is at least 66 percent 
	dominated by coniferous species is classified as a Coniferous Forest.
411	Pine Flatwoods
412	Longleaf Pine-Xeric Oak
413	Sand Pine
414	Pine-Mesic Oak
419	Other Pines

420	Upland Hardwood Forests
	This classification of upland forest lands has a crown canopy with at 
	least a 66 percent dominance by hardwood tree species.  This class, 
	like the Upland Conifer class, is reserved for naturally generated 
421	Xeric Oak
	This forest community is similar to and occupies the same sites as the 
	Longleaf Pine-Xeric Oak (412) community except that the pines, if 
	present, are not the dominant species.  In many cases, longleaf pine 
	may have historically been present in significant numbers, but were 
	harvested and never regenerated.  Sometimes this cover class is 
	referred to as xeric hammock.  Species common to this class include 
	bluejack oak, turkey oak, sand post oak, and sand live oak   Old 
	fields and pine plantations with high proportions of oaks and other 
	hardwood species in the canopy were sometimes included in this 
423	Oak-Pine-Hickory
	Oak-Pine-Hickory were included in the Temperate Hardwood category 425.
425	Temperate Hardwood
	This forest cover type may be referred to as low or mesic hammock or 
	temperate hammock.  Common components of this community may include, 
	depending upon the location, a wide variety of oaks, red bay, sweetbay,
	magnolia, sweetgum, sugarberry, hickories, cabbage palm, hollies, 
	Vaccinium spp., and cedar.  Various pines are minor associates.  Areas 
	defined with this category were typically more diverse in species than 
	in categories Live Oak 1427) or Sand Live Oak (432) and occurred in 
	lower/wetter areas than some of the other categories.   Oak-Pine-
	Hickory (423) areas were included in Temperate Hardwoods (425).
426	Tropical Hardwoods
	This was not included in our categories.
427	Live Oak
	Often referred to as upland temperate hammock, this forest community 
	is one in which live oak (Ouercus Virginiana) is either pure or 
	predominant.  The principle associates of this cover type include 
	sweetgum, magnolia, holly, and laurel oak.  This community is common 
	along the upper banks of Florida's lakes and streams.  Live oak areas 
	may be included in Temperate Hardwoods (425) and Sand Live Oak (432).
	The following categories, if found in the Distinct, were combined 
	with other upland forest categories.
428	Cabbage Palm
429	Wax Myrtle-Willow

430	Upland Hardwood Forests Continued
431	Beech - Magnolia
	This category was not included in the classification.

432	Sand Live Oak
	Sand live oak predominates in this cover type.  Associates are cabbage 
	palm, southern red cedar, and southern magnolia with smaller quantities
	of chapman oak, myrtle oak, red maple, red bay, and holly. This cover 
	type is generally found on old coastal dune and white sand areas.  
	Conditions were typically more xeric than Live Oak (427) and these 
	communities are also referred to as xeric hammocks. 
433	Western Everglades Hardwoods
	No areas associated with this definition in this District. 
434	Hardwood-Conifer Mixed
	This class is reserved for those forested areas in which neither 
	upland conifers nor hardwoods achieve a 66 percent crown canopy 
	dominance. Typically, areas delineated as this cover type were more 
	mesic (wetter) than most of the above sites.  Laurel oak, water oak, 
	and sweetgum associated with loblolly and/or slash pine characterized 
	this land cover type.
	The following categories were not broken out.  More information about 
	them may be obtained in the FLUCCS manual.
435	Dead Trees
437	Australian Pine (not found in the District)
438	Mixed Hardwood

440	Tree Plantations
	Florida is part of one of the most productive timber producing regions 
	of the world, due in large part to the monoculture management 
	practices prescribed by its private and industrial professional 
	foresters.  Therefore, large parcels of land are devoted to tree 

441	Coniferous Plantations
	These pine forests are typically artificially generated by planting 
	seedling stock or seeds.  These stands are characterized by high 
	numbers of trees per acre and their uniform appearance.  Although row 
	patterns often stand out, this is not always the case, especially 
	where stands are as a result of aerial seeding.  Various types of 
	natural Upland Coniferous Forests (410) were typically included in 
	this category because of similar spectral values.  This classification 
	(440) includes both xeric (dry site) and mesic (moderately moist site) 
	forest communities vegetated with pine plantation.  Certain types of 
	wetland, or hydric, forest communities may sometimes fall under this 
	category.  Also included in this class are areas in which timber 
	harvesting has occurred but which exhibit no evidence of being 
	developed for other intended uses (clear-cuts in an area in which 
	rotation forest management is practiced is a prime example of such a 
	The categories listed below were not broken out.
	4411	Sand Pine Plantations
	4412	Christmas Tree Plantations
442	Hardwood Plantations
	4421	 Eucalyptus Plantations
	These areas were not delineated but were included in Pine Plantations 
	(441) or Shrub and Brushlands (320).
443	Forest Regeneration Areas
444	Experimental Tree Plots
	Theses areas may be included in Pine Plantations (441), Shrub and 
	Brushlands (320), or Agriculture (210).
445	Seed Plantations


	The delineation of water areas depends upon the scale and resolution 
	characteristics of the remote sensing imagery used for interpretation.  
	Those portions of the water body having emergent vegetation or 
	observable submerged vegetation are placed in the Wetlands category 
	(600).  The categories are extremely difficult to separate on spectral 
	characteristics alone and were, therefore, manually distinguished 
	using NHAP.

510	Streams and Waterways
	This category includes rivers, creeks, canals, and other linear water 
	bodies.The boundary between streams and lakes, reservoirs, or the 
	ocean is the straight line across the mouth of the stream.

520	Lakes
	The Lakes category includes extensive inland water bodies. Reservoirs 
	(530) were included in Lakes (520).  Islands within lakes that are too 
	small to delineate will be included in the water area.  The 
	delineation of a lake will be based on the size of the water body at 
	the time the remote sensing data was acquired.

530	Reservoirs
	This category was included with Lakes-520.

540	Bays and Estuaries
	For the purposes of this project, bays and estuaries were those areas 
	seaward from land and not considered as a stream or waterway.  ERDAS 
	made visual estimates as to where the bay and estuaries began.  It was 
	not determined using any salinity or other related data to identify 
	the boundaries.The following categories were not delineated.
550	Major Springs
560	Slough Waters

600 Wetlands

	Wetlands are generally defined as those area where the water table is 
	at, near, or above the land surface for a significant portion of most 
	years.  The hydrologic regime is such that aquatic or hydrophytic be 
	nonvegetated.  Wetlands are frequently associated with topographic 
	low lying areas.  Examples of wetlands include marshes, mudflats, 
	emergent vegetation areas, and swamps.  Shallow water areas with 
	submerged aquatic vegetation are usually, but not always, classed as 
	water and not included in the Wetland category.Extensive parts of 
	some river floodplains qualify as Wetlands.  These do not include 
	agriculture land where seasonal wetness or short-term flooding may 
	provide an important component of the total annual soil moisture 
	necessary for crop production.  But uncultivated or unmanaged wetlands 
	yielding products such as wood or which are grazed by livestock are 
	retained in the Wetlands category.Wetlands drained for any purpose 
	belong to other land use categories, whether they be Agriculture, 
	Rangeland, Forested Uplands or Urban and Built-Up.  When the drainage 
	is discontinued and such ceases, classification reverts to Wetlands 
	managed for wildlife purposes may show short-term changes in 
	vegetation type and wetness condition as different management 
	practices are prescribed, but they are properly classified as Wetlands.
	The user of this manual should be aware of the fact that the above 
	definition of a wetland is tailored to the limitations imposed upon 
	image analysis which must classify wetlands according to evidence 
	recorded by remotely sensed images.  In the absence of direct field 
	inspection, imposing a more definitive definition of wetlands proves 
	to be infeasible.  Strict adherence to the definitions in federal, 
	state, and Water Management District laws and procedures using 
	remotely sensed images cannot be achieved.

610	Wetland Hardwood Forests
	Wetland Hardwood Forests are those wetland areas which meet the crown 
	closure requirements for forestland as outlined under the Upland 
	Forest Classification (400-minimum 10 percent closure).  To be 
	included in the Wetland Hardwood Forest category, the stand must be 66 
	percent or more dominated by wetland hardwood species, either salt or 
611	Bay Swamps
	This category is composed of dominant trees such as loblolly bay, 
	sweetbay, red bay, swamp bay, slash pine, and loblolly pine.  
	Gallberry, dahoon holly, fetterbush, wax myrtle, and titi are typical 
	components of the understory vegetation.
612	Mangrove Swamps
	Mangrove swamps were not found using the TM.  District staff is aware 
	of small areas of mangrove around Cedar Key,  (southwestern Levy 
	County).  This coastal forested wetland community is composed 
	predominantly of black mangrove in the District.  Major associates 
	include marsh elder, salt bush, cabbage palm, and sea grape.
613	Gum Swamps
	This forest community is composed of swamp tupelo (blackgum) or water 
	tupelo (tupelogum) which is pure or predominant.  Associate species 
	may include bald cypress and a variety of hydric hardwood species.
614	Titi Swamps
	This community is composed of often extremely dense stands of black 
	titi and cyrilla which are either the pure or predominant species. 
	Major associated species include bays, cypress, tupelos, and other 
	wetland hardwoods.  Titi swamps were located principally in southern 
	and western Taylor County.
615	Stream and Lake Swamps (Bottomland)
	This community, often referred to as bottomland or stream hardwoods, 
	has been restricted to those areas adjacent to rivers and .streams.  
	Mixed Wetland Hardwoods (617) and Wetland Forested Mixed (630) are 
	very similar to this category in terms of species composition in the 
	tree canopy.  It is a conglomeration of a wide variety of predominantly
	hardwood species of which some of the more common components include 
	red maple, river birch, live/laurel/overcup and water oak, sweetgum, 
	willows, tupelos, water hickory, hays, water ash, and buttonbush.  
	Associated species include cypress, slash pine, loblolly pine, and 
	shortleaf pine.
616	Inland Ponds and Sloughs
	This category was not classified.
617	Mixed Wetland Hardwoods
	This category is reserved for those wetland hardwood communitied which 
	are composed of a large variety of hardwood species tolerant of hydric 
	conditions yet exhibiting an ill-defined mixture of species.  It is 
	very similar to Stream and Lake Swamps (615), but was typically used 
	to describe hardwood dominated wetland areas not contiguous with 
	rivers and streams. 

618	Willow Wetlands
	Coastal plain willow and/or black willow were the principal components 
	of these wetlands.  Other species present included buttonbush, wax 
	myrtle, and various other wetland shrubs.  This category is similar to 
	Scrub/Shrub Wetland (646), but contains a dominance of willows.

620	Wetland Coniferous Forests
	Wetland coniferous forests are wetlands which meet the crown closure 
	requirements for coniferous forest (see 400 and 410) and are the 
	result of natural generation.  These communities are commonly found in 
	the interior wetlands in such places as river flood plains, bogs, 
	bayheads, and sloughs.
621	Cypress
	This community is composed of pond cypress or bald cypress which is 
	either pure or predominant.  In the case of pond cypress, common 
	associates are swamp tupelo, slash pine, and black titi.  In the case 
	of bald cypress, commonly associated are water tupelo, swamp 
	cottonwood, red maple, American elm, pumpkin ash, Carolina ash, 
	overcup oak, and water hickory.  Bald cypress may be associated with 
	laurel oak, sweetgum, and sweetbay on less moist sites.  Note that 
	some authorities do not distinguish between the two varieties of 
	The following category was not broken out.
622	Pond Pine
	Pond Pines were typically included in the Pine Plantation (441) 
	category since thls species is planted in some of the wetter areas of 
	the District.
623	Atlantic White Cedar
	This category was not located.
624	Cypress-Pine-Cabbage Palm
	This community includes cypress, pine and/or cabbage palm in 
	combinations in which no species achieves dominance.  Although not 
	strictly a wetlands community, it forms a transition between moist 
	upland and hydric sites.  It was found to be primarily associated with 
	the transitional flatwoods areas landward of coastal marshes.

630	Wetland Forested Mixed
	This category includes mixed wetlands forest communities in which 
	neither hardwoods nor conifers achieve a 66 percent dominance of the 
	crown canopy composition.  Pines were more prevalent in the canopy of 
	this community type.  Typically, the species found in the Stream and 
	Lake Swamp Wetlands (615) were also seen in Wetland Forested Mixed 
	(630).  Hydrology was the principal difference between 615 and 630, in 
	that the 615 forests were influenced directly by river/stream flooding,
	whereas 630 forests were inundated by high ground by high groundwater, 
	surface runoff, or lake flooding.  It should also be noted that the 
	630 class denoted areas distinctly wetter than Hardwood/Conifer Mixed 
	(434) or Temperate Hardwood (425).

640	Vegetated Non-Forested Wetlands
	Vegetated, non-forested wetlands include marshes and seasonally 
	flooded prairies and meadows.  These communities are usually confined 
	to relatively level, low-lying areas.  This category does not include 
	areas which have a tree cover which meets the crown closure threshold 
	for designation as a forested class of land cover.  When the crown 
	cover is less than the threshold for wetland forest or is non-woody, 
	it will be included in this 640 category.  Sawgrass, cattail, and 
	various broadleaved aquatic plants tend to be common species in 
	freshwater marshes while cordgrasses and needlerush are common species 
	in the saltwater marsh communities.
641	Freshwater Marshes
	The communities included in the category are characterized by having 
	one or more of the following species predominant:
	Sawgrass		-Cladium jamaicensis
	Cattail			-Typha domingenis
				-Typha latifolia
				-Typha angustifolia
	Arrowhead		-Sagittaria spp.
	Maidencane		-Panicum hemitomon
	Buttonbush		-Cephalanthus occidentalis
	Sand Cordgrass	-Spartina bakeri
	Switchgrass		-Panicum virgatum
	Bulrush		-Scirpus americanus
				-Scirpus validus
				-Scirpus robustus
	Softrush		-Juncus effusus
	Common Reed		-Phragmites communis
				-Phragmites australis
	Arrowroot		-Thalia geniculata

	If the community is 66 percent or more dominated by a single species 
	(by cover), one of the following level IV classifications will be 
	6411		Sawgrass
	These areas were not broken out.
	6412		Cattail
	6413		Spike rush
	6414		Maidencane
	6415		Dog fennel and low marsh grasses
	6416		Arrowroot
642	Saltwater Marshes
	The communities included in this category will be predominated by one 
	or more of the following species:
	Cordgrasses			-Spartina alterniflora
					-Spartina bakeri
					-Spartina patens
					-Spartina spartinae
	Needlerush			-Juncus roemerianus
	Seaahore Saltgrass		-Distichlis spicata
	Saltwort			-Batis maritima
	Glassworts			-Salicornia spp.
	Fringerush			-Fimbristylis castanea
	Salt Dropseed			-Sporobolus virginicus
	Seaside Daisy			-Borrichia frutescens
	Salt Jointgrass			-Paspalum vaginatum

	If the community is 66 percent or more dominated by a .single species 
	by cover, one of the following level IV classifications will be 
6421	Cordgrass
6422	Needlerush or black rush
6423	High Marsh/Salina
	This category is described as salt marshes along the landward edge of 
	the coastal marsh that were inundated infrequently by spring tides.  
	The habitat may include bare areas (salt barrens).  Typical vegetation 
	includes marsh hay cordgrass, seashore salt grass, salt dropseed, salt 
	jointgrass, seaside daisy, glassworts, salt worts, sea purselane, 
	various sedges, and occasional shrubs such as marsh elder, christmas 
	berry, salt bush, and wax myrtle.
643	Wet Prairies
	Wet Prairies were included in the categories Freshwater Marshes (641) 
	and Saltwater Marshes (642).This classification is composed of 
	dominantly grasaes and grass like vegetation (sedges and rushes) on 
	wet soils and is usually distinguished from marshes by having less 
	open water and/or shorter hydroperiods.  Wet prairies will typically 
	include a mixture of the following species:
	Sawgrass		-Cladium jamiacense
	Maidencane		-Panicum hemitomori
	Cordgrasses		-Spartina bakeri
				-Spartina patens
	Rushes			-Juncus spp.
	Sedges			-Carex spp.
	Spike Rushes		-Eleocharis spp.
	Beak Rushes		-Rhynchospora spp.
	Fringe Rushes		-Fimbristylis spp.
	St. Johns Wort		-Hypericum spp.
	Yellow-eyed Grass	-Xyris spp.
	Bog buttons		-Eriocaulon and Lachnocaulon spp.
	Blood root		-Lachnanthes caroliniana
	Whitetop Sedge	-Dichromena colorata
644	Emergent Aquatic Vegetation
	This category of wetland plant species includes both floating 
	vegetation and vegetation which is found either partially or 
	completely above the surface of water.  In some cases, wet prairies or 
	grassy ponds may be included in this category.
	6442		Spatterdock		-Nuphar sp.
These categories were not classified:
	6441		Water Lettuce		-Pistia stratiotes
	6443		Water Hyacinth		-Eichhornia sp.
	6444		Duck Weed		-Lemna sp.
	6445		Water Lily		-Nymphaeacea sp.
645	Submergent Aquatic vegetation
	This category of wetland vegetation is composed of those aquatic 
	species or communities found growing completely below the surface of 
	the water.  It was not classified.
646	Scrub/Shrub Wetlands
	Scrub/Shrub Wetlands are dominated by a low canopy of shrub vegetation 
	with less than 25% trees.  Shrubs included in this category are titi, 
	wax myrtle, dahoon holly, fetterbush, button bush, and groundsel tree. 
	Trees that may be seen are coastal plain willow, planer elm, pop ash, 
	and occasionally widely scattered hardwoods (less than 10% total 
	cover). This category is typically wetter and the canopy species may 
	be different than the Shrub and Brush Land (320) category.
	This category was generally included with the High Marsh/Salina class 
	(6423).  Non-vegetated wetlands are those hydric communities on which 
	vegetation is lacking due to the erosional effects of wind and water 
	transporting the surface material 90 rapidly that the establishment of 
	plant communities is hindered or the fluctuation of the water surface 
	level is such that vegetation cannot become established.  Additionally,
	submerged or saturated materials often develop toxic conditions of 
	extreme acidity or salinity.  Tidal flats and intermittent ponds are 
	the main components of this category.
651	Tidal Flats
	This category is composed of that portion of the shore environment 
	protected from wave action, as in the case of estuaries, comprised 
	primarily of muds transported by tidal channels.  An important 
	characteristic of the tidal flat environment is its alternating tidal 
	cycle of submergence and exposure to the atmosphere.  Most tidal flat 
	areas are found seaward of the saltwater marshes on the coast.


	Barren land has very little or no vegetation and limited potential to 
	support vegetative communities.  In general, it is an area of bare 
	soil or rock.  Vegetation, when present, is very sparce and patchy.  
	However, caution should be exercised since barren land may temporarily 
	exist due to human activity.  Generally, such land is incorporated in 
	another land use/cover category; examples of this include areas of 
	agricultural land temporarily void of vegetation cover due to tillage 
	practlces and areas of extractive and industrial land use which have 
	dump sites for tailings and waste materials.  Barren land categories 
	include Beaches exhibiting little or no evidence of human encroachment,
	Sand Other than Beaches, Exposed Rock and Disturbed Lands.  Some roads,
	beaches, limestone outcrops, borrow pits, and freshly cleared land may 
	be included in this category.


810	Transportation
	Transportation facilities are used for the movement of people and 
	goods; therefore, they are major influences on land and many land use 
	boundaries are outlined by them.
	Only major four-lane highways were included in this category.  These 
	were digitized as vector files directly from the TM and then overlaid 
	on the other vector landcover files.

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Distribution Information:
Resource description: SRWMD 1988 Land Use

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Metadata Reference Information:
*Metadata date: 20030527
*Language of metadata: en
Metadata contact:
Contact information:
Contact organization primary:
Contact person: GIS Section
Contact organization: Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Contact address:
Address type: mailing and physical address
2600 Blair Stone Rd
Twin Towers MS 6520
City: Tallahassee
State or province: FL
Postal code: 32399-2400
Contact voice telephone: 850/245-8238
*Metadata standard name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata
*Metadata standard version: FGDC-STD-001-1998
*Metadata time convention: local time
Metadata extensions:
*Online linkage:
*Profile name: ESRI Metadata Profile

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